My firm has been providing engineering consulting services for boilers, pressure vessels, and pressure systems for decades. This includes active technical participation in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code where we received their highest technical award, The Pressure Vessel and Piping Award. Our 40+ years experience in boiler and pressure design, analysis, safety and failure causation evaluation includes expert testimony in state, federal, and international courts. We are strong contributors to the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code, and ASTM, API and other national consensus standards committees which specify safety. I have been the chairman of the ASME subgroup on fatigue strength for 40 years and authored Part 6 “Assessment of Pitting Corrosion,” including perforated plates in the fitness for service code API 579 / ASME FFS-1. Under normal operating conditions, the foreign gas should not have been present, and it’s likely that there was some error make in the design or construction of this particular unit.