My specific areas of expertise include cognitive processes, multi-tasking, usability of technologies and methods to improve quality and safety of work. I have published over 20 papers in internationally recognized journals specifically focusing on safety, human information processing, system and user interface design and implementation, and reduction of errors. In processes involving divided attention and multi-tasking, it is imperative to provide advance warning systems for any changes in the status quo. How far in advance appropriate signage should be provided depends on the severity (for example, a single-lane versus multiple-lane closure) and urgency (for example a suddenly occurring congestion due to a traffic crash versus ongoing congestion due to construction), but signs should clearly indicate the nature of the change and be clearly visible. Signs generally indicating ongoing construction may be insufficient as different drivers may perceive general statements differently and with different levels of alertness and driving speed. Signs more specifically indicating traffic backup and similar incidences would almost certainly keep drivers more alert, result in reduced speed and prevent crashes. Based on the limited facts presented in this case, the lack of appropriate signage appears to be a safety issue and to have caused an easily preventable crash.