Litigation Guides

Attorney’s Guide to Benzene Exposure & Toxicity

Benzene is a colorless, flammable chemical often used in manufacturing processes. It is also present in certain household substances such as detergents, dyes, and pesticides. Given the chemical’s widespread usage, concerns about adverse health impacts from benzene exposure have grown in recent years. In particular, research has found links between benzene toxicity and the development of leukemia. More recently, benzene sparked additional controversy with consumers. An independent testing lab detected benzene in several aerosol sunscreens, prompting recalls. Potential benzene exposure at this scale provides a major runway for consumer protection legal action. For litigators taking on benzene exposure cases, here’s what you need to know about the chemical’s carcinogenic risks.

Medically Reviewed


What is Benzene?

Benzene is a chemical compound classified as an aromatic hydrocarbon. Benzene is a clear, colorless, highly flammable liquid with a gasoline-like odor. It’s mainly used in industrial settings as a base material for oil, gasoline, plastics, rubbers, and lubricants. Benzene is also a byproduct of oil refining. As such, benzene exposure is most commonly an occupational hazard in the chemical industry, petroleum refineries, or oil pipelines.

Clear liquid in test tubes

Benzene Occupational Hazards

Benzene is present in many industrial workplaces. As such, the Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set guidelines surrounding safe practices. OSHA permits an exposure limit to benzene of one part per million (ppm). In comparison, most people can start to smell benzene at approximately 60 ppm of air, and at 100 ppm most people will recognize it as benzene.


Benzene Links to Leukemia

In recent decades, benzene’s widespread applications have prompted greater concern for its probable toxicity. Benzene is a known carcinogen and research has linked benzene exposure specifically to leukemia. High levels of benzene exposure can cause acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and is likely linked to non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Other research also indicates benzene exposure is associated with childhood leukemia.


How Benzene Causes Cancer

Benzene can lead to the development of cancer via reactive metabolites. This term refers to materials left over after a molecule is processed by the body. In the case of benzene, these molecular remnants are carcinogenic. Benzene’s reactive metabolites can cause chromosomal abnormalities, DNA damage, or permanent DNA alterations. This, in turn, causes gene mutations that can trigger leukemias like acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).


Benzene in Sunscreen

In 2021, Valisure, an independent lab that tests consumer products, found several aerosol sunscreens contained high levels of benzene. These levels were greater than two ppm. This discovery spurred a voluntary recall of certain products manufactured by Johnson & Johnson. The products recalled include:
● Neutrogena Beach Defense aerosol sunscreen
● Neutrogena Cool Dry Sport aerosol sunscreen
● Neutrogena Invisible Daily defense aerosol sunscreen
● Neutrogena Ultra Sheer aerosol sunscreen
● Aveeno Protect + Refresh aerosol sunscreen


Increased Risk from Aerosols

Benzene’s presence in aerosol sunscreens presents additional risk factors for cancer. Greater research into this topic, however, benzene in an aerosol form enhances its ability to contaminate the surrounding air. This increases the chance of inhalation.
Further, benzene within sunscreen poses an obvious danger of dermal absorption. Benzene exposure to the skin can cause irritation, blisters, and dryness. Dermal exposure is a slower process, compared to inhalation, however, it remains a serious concern given sunscreen’s method of application.

This Litigation Guide was medically reviewed by Dr. Rena Zheng, MD.

About the author

Wendy Ketner, M.D.

Wendy Ketner, M.D.

Dr. Wendy Ketner is a distinguished medical professional with a comprehensive background in surgery and medical research. Currently serving as the Senior Vice President of Medical Affairs at the Expert Institute, she plays a pivotal role in overseeing the organization's most important client relationships. Dr. Ketner's extensive surgical training was completed at Mount Sinai Beth Israel, where she gained hands-on experience in various general surgery procedures, including hernia repairs, cholecystectomies, appendectomies, mastectomies for breast cancer, breast reconstruction, surgical oncology, vascular surgery, and colorectal surgery. She also provided care in the surgical intensive care unit.

Her research interests have focused on post-mastectomy reconstruction and the surgical treatment of gastric cancer, including co-authoring a textbook chapter on the subject. Additionally, she has contributed to research on the percutaneous delivery of stem cells following myocardial infarction.

Dr. Ketner's educational background includes a Bachelor's degree from Yale University in Latin American Studies and a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) from SUNY Downstate College of Medicine. Moreover, she is a member of the Board of Advisors for Opollo Technologies, a fintech healthcare AI company, contributing her medical expertise to enhance healthcare technology solutions. Her role at Expert Institute involves leveraging her medical knowledge to provide insights into legal cases, underscoring her unique blend of medical and legal acumen.

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