I have spent my life developing minimally invasive surgical and interventional technologies, including catheters and stents. Over my career, I have been involved in a broad range of technology development efforts including stent fabrication. I have co-founded medical device companies which developed laser angioplasty catheters and endoscopes used in minimally invasive vascular surgery. I spent considerable effort developing testing protocols for stent and catheter flexibility. As a physician, I have performed angioplasty and stent placement procedures. While working as a consultant for a national surgical corporation, I helped develop stents for intravascular application. I served on a surgery and bioengineering study section for 16 years and served as chair of a cardiovascular and interventional devices study section for 4 years. Both of these study sections dealt extensively with stents, atherectomy catheters, and novel balloon systems for opening blocked vessels. I am a professor of bioengineering, electrical engineering, and surgery at a west coast university. I teach courses on design and application of minimally invasive surgical and interventional devices to engineering graduate students. I also serve as a member of a science advisory board on the subcommittee for the devices and radiologic health. I have served as an expert witness in more than 15 intellectual property matters, several of which dealt with some form of balloon stents and guide wires.