This case involves a seventy-seven-year-old man who was undergoing treatment for urinary frequency, painful urination, nocturia, and hematuria. The urologist performed a cystoscopy and diagnosed the patient with an overactive bladder, interstitial cystitis, and BPH. The patient was seen every three to four months due to the waxing and waning of symptoms, but he consistently had blood in his urine. The patient got a second opinion from a pathologist who identified cancer cells under the microscope. After the patient told him of the suspicious cells, the original urologist performed a second cystoscopy, which revealed invasive bladder cancer. The patient required a neobladdar reconstruction as a result, and alleged that his care from the first physician had been inadequate.