This aviation planning case involves a 747 aircraft that was carrying 269 passengers on an international flight from the United States to Asia. The pilots of the plane failed to program the plane’s inertial navigation and radar system properly. Because of this, the plane deviated from its plotted course and strayed into a foreign territory. When foreign officials detected the airplane, they fired several heat-seeking missiles at the plane. The exploding missiles damaged the plane’s hydraulic systems and caused rapid cabin decompression. The plane went into a downward spiral and slammed into the sea. All 269 passengers and crew were killed in the crash. The political climate between the United States and the foreign territory was widely known to be “cold” and a government agency had previously issued navigation charts that had a warning that aircraft infringing on the foreign territory might be fired on without warning. The survivors of several passengers filed a wrongful death suit against the airline claiming that the airplane’s crew was negligent in not following mandated aviation regulations and navigational procedures, causing the crash. Expert witnesses with specializations in aviation appraisal, aviation safety, and aerospace engineering were sought to opine on the issue.