Dr. Fred S. Apple has 40 years of experience in the field of Medical Toxicology. He earned his BS in Biology from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and his Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of Minnesota. Today, this expert is board certified in Toxicological Chemistry and Clinical Chemistry through the American Board of Clinical Chemistry. Formerly, this expert served as the Medical Director of the Whittier Clinic Laboratory, Richfield Clinic Laboratory, Clinical Laboratories, and Point of Care Testing at Hennepin County Medical Center. He was also a Professor of Kinesiology at the University of Minnesota. He currently serves as the Principal Investigator of the Cardiac Biomarkers Trials Laboratory at Hennepin Healthcare Research Institute, as a Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology at the University of Minnesota Medical School, and as the Owner of Fred S. Apple, PhD, LLC. He is also a Co-Director of the Clinical Chemistry Fellowship Program at Hennepin County Medical Center and a Co-Director of Hennepin Healthcare's Clinical and Forensic Toxicology Laboratory.